Medico Research Chronicles <p style="text-align: justify;"><code></code>Medico Research Chronicles (Medrech) ISSN No. <a href="">2394-3971</a>, is an official journal of Medico Edge Publications. It is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal of medical and health sciences, published on bi-monthly intervals. It publishes various manuscripts on the diverse specialization of medical, health science, and clinical research.</p> <p>Indexed by the&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href=""><strong>United States'&nbsp;NLM Catalogue, NCBI</strong></a></p> <p><strong>Medico Research Chronicles has been positively evaluated by <a href="">Index Copernicus</a>, Poland for the year 2019 and assigned an IC Value of 78.67.&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Journal is valid for publication as per MCI Guidelines. A transitory period of 2 years (Upto 2022) is given for consideration of publication.&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Academicians and Researchers interested in reviewing the article are requested to join us on Publons: <a title="Publons by Web of Science" href=""></a></strong></p> <p><strong><a href="">Click Here </a></strong>for the notification details.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Medico Edge Publications en-US Medico Research Chronicles 2394-3971 Outcome measures of laparoscopic versus open appendicectomy with uncomplicated acute appendicitis <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong> Acute appendicitis is the sudden and severe inflammation of the appendix. It can cause pain in the abdomen, and this pain may occur quickly and worsen within hours.</p> <p><strong>Aim of the study:</strong> To find out the Outcome Measures of Laparoscopic Versus Open Appendicectomy with Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a prospective type of observational study conducted in the Department of Surgery, Bangladesh Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The study period was from 1st July 2018 to 30 June 2020. 100 cases irrespective of sex were selected through random sampling who fit the selected criteria</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Among 50 cases of open appendicectomy, 33 cases (66%) were male and 17 cases (34%) were female. Among 50 cases of laparoscopic appendicectomy, 34 cases (68%) were male and 16 cases (32%) were female (p-value: 0.83). Open cases needed 67.50±9.20 minutes' duration of anesthesia and laparoscopic cases 83.82±13.05 minutes (p-value: &lt;0.001). Duration of surgery in group A (open cases) was (mean±SD) 44.54±11.75 minutes and in the group, B was (mean±SD) 68.28±15.24 minutes (p value&lt;0.001). Per operative, hazards were observed in 2% of patients with laparoscopic appendicectomy (p-value: 0.31). Meantime required taking narcotic analgesic after surgery in Group A was 29.06±10.46 hours and in Group B 21.36±11.93 hours (p-value: 0.001)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> After observing the outcome of both the procedure it can easily be concluded that laparoscopic appendicectomy is superior over the open procedure in terms of duration of anesthesia, duration of surgery, post-operative pain and discomfort, tolerance to a normal diet, hospital stay, return to post-operative indoor and outdoor activities, wound infection and cosmesis. So laparoscopic appendicectomy is the safer procedure by expert surgeons. Analyzing more recent studies, it can be suggested that laparoscopy is becoming the first-choice method for the management of acute appendicitis.</p> Abul Bashar Shahriar Ahmed Ashik Mahmud Mohammad Ataul Islam Abdullah Al Mamun Nahid Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 Ahmed ABS, Mahmud A, Islam MA, Mamun AM, Nahid R 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 8 5 370 377 10.26838/MEDRECH.2020.8.5.551 Assessment of echocardiographic left ventricular dimensions with several clinical findings among healthy people <p><strong>Background:</strong> The echocardiographic measurement of left ventricular dimensions and the changes of left ventricular dimensions may be important to assess cardiac as well as the cardiovascular conditions of patients. On the other hand, the QRS duration signifies the time for ventricular depolarization. <strong>Aim of the study:</strong> The aim of this study was to assess the echocardiographic left ventricular dimensions with several clinical findings among healthy people. <strong>Methods:</strong> This was an observational cross-sectional study which was conducted in the Department of Cardiology, University Cardiac Centre, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka over a period of 2 years from July 2008 to June 2010. In total 92 apparently healthy people without heart failure (HF) or myocardial infarction (MI) were included as the study population. Among them, 22 were in Referent (QRS duration &lt;100 ms), 40 in Incomplete BBB (QRS duration 100 – 119), and 30 in Complete BBB (≥ 120 ms) groups. Proper written consent was taken from all the participants and this study was approved by the ethical committee of the mentioned university. All data were processed, analyzed, and disseminated by MS Office and SPSS version as per need. <strong>Results:</strong> In this study, the left ventricular (LV) mass, left ventricular diastolic dimension, septal wall thickness, posterior wall thickness and left atrial size were significantly higher in complete BBB group than those in referent and incomplete BBB group (143.0 ± 30.2 vs. 182.6 ± 37.9 vs. 222.0 ± 61.0, p &lt; 0.001; 4.6 ± 0.3 vs. 4.9 ± 0.3 vs. 5.2±0.4, p&lt; 0.001; 0.9±0.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1 vs. 1.1± 0.1, p&lt;0.001; 0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1 vs. 1.1± 0.1, p&lt;0.001; and 3.3 ± 0.3 vs. 3.6±0.3 vs. 3.7±0.3, p&lt;0.001 respectively). However, fractional shortening and left ventricular ejection fraction were found to decrease significantly with the increase in QRS duration (p &lt; 0.001 and p &lt; 0.001 respectively). In this study the QRS duration was observed to be linearly correlated with LV mass, LV diastolic dimension, septal wall thickness, posterior wall thickness and left atrial size (r=0.577, p&lt;0.001; r=0.480, p&lt;0.001; r=0.583, p&lt;0.001; r=0.521, p&lt; 0.001 and r= 0.418, p&lt;0.001 respectively).&nbsp; However, QRS duration was found to maintain a negative correlation with fractional shortening and LVEF (r =- 0.637, p&lt;0.001 and r =- 0.701, p&lt;0.001 respectively). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study revealed that longer electrocardiographic QRS duration was correlated with the increase in LV mass, LV diastolic dimensions, septal wall thickness, posterior wall thickness, and left atrial size. The association was most striking in individuals with complete BBB compared with a normal QRS duration. Meanwhile, the presence of prolonged QRS in a patient’s ECG can serve as a bedside clue to the presence of decreased fractional shortening and left ventricular ejection fraction.</p> Md. Emran Hossain Roksana Islam Mohammad Abdur Rahim Khondekar Mustaq Adnan Molla Md. Iftekhar Hossain Md. Mustafizur Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Md. Emran Hossain, Dr. Roksana Islam, Dr. Mohammad Abdur Rahim, Dr. Khondekar Mustaq Adnan, Dr. Molla Md. Iftekhar Hossain, Dr. Md. Mustafizur Rahman 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 8 5 378 385 Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) Towards COVID-19 and Importance of Hand Hygiene: A Cross-Sectional Study. <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has accursed the world since December 2019 when it was first diagnosed in Wuhan, China. As it quickly spread to almost all the corners of the world, WHO later declared it as a global pandemic. Effective non-pharmaceutical measures to control it depend upon the knowledge and practice of basic principles of hygiene and the use of facemasks. Hence educating the public about it has an immense role in controlling this contagious disease.</p> <p><em>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </em>This cross-sectional study was conducted in Chittagong from June 2020 to December 2020 with a study population of 1489 participants. Adults with a good physical and mental condition and those who agreed to participate were included while unwilling and sick people were excluded from the study.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Out of 1489 participants, the mean age was 28.81±8.64 years with a range from 12 to 70 years. More than half (51%) of the participants were females and about 773(51.9%) participants completed above X education level. Knowledge about the disease, its causative agent, main symptoms, ultimate fate, and its mode of transmission was considerably high. The majority of the participants were accustomed to preventive measures such as social distancing, isolation of the patients, home quarantine, and avoidance of large gatherings. Knowledge directly affected both attitudes and practices as the survey revealed that the majority (91-89%) of the participants achieved a good knowledge-attitude score and 83.75% achieved a good knowledge-practice score. Overall achieved knowledge score regarding the importance of hand hygiene translated on attitude and practices.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Our findings insinuated that the Bangladeshi population substantiated a decent knowledge about COVID-19 and knowledge about hand hygiene was above par and that too translated on attitude and practices. Hence widespread targeted health education program that incorporates considerations of KAP modifying factors is further needed to prevent subsequent waves of the infection.</p> Adnan Bacha Mortuza Begum Fahmida Islam Chowdhury Sara Farahnaj Tarek Shams Md. Akram Hossain Copyright (c) 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 8 5 386 402 10.26838/MEDRECH.2021.8.5.552 Study of clinical profile and surgical outcome of pterygium in adult patients at rural tertiary care hospital. <p><strong>I</strong><strong>ntroduction:</strong> Pterygium is a benign, degenerative condition of the subconjunctival tissue, for which many surgical techniques ranging from McReynaud’s operation to conjunctival autograft and amniotic membrane graft, have been discussed in the literature. Grafts prevent a recurrence, acting as a barrier, and have proven to be the gold standard. Here we have studied the clinical profile and surgical outcome of pterygium surgery by various techniques at a Rural tertiary care hospital (RTCH).</p> <p><strong>Aims/ Objectives:</strong> Our primary aim was to study demographical factors and clinical profile of pterygia along with the surgical outcome and postoperative complications of pterygium surgery by various techniques, at RTCH.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>:&nbsp; In this, hospital-based observational descriptive longitudinal study, we studied 75 patients, with primary progressive pterygium, who underwent pterygium surgery from September 2019- March 2021 and recorded their pre-operative, intraoperative, and postoperative data with a follow-up period of 3 months. <strong>Results:</strong> 74.6% of the population were females, with a bimodal peak incidence in 31-40 years and 61-70 years (22.6%).&nbsp; Most common presentation in both eyes (46.6%) with 97.3% cases presenting with nasal pterygium. 66.6% of patients presented with a grade 2 pterygium. 50 patients had a pre-operative “with the rule astigmatism”. Pre-operative keratometry readings could not be assessed for 5 patients due to excessive distortion of the corneal surface. 37 patients underwent graft fixation with no suture no glue while 38 patients underwent graft fixation with sutures. The most common complication was graft edema which was seen in 53 patients, while recurrence was seen in 2 patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The occurrence of pterygium is very common in rural areas, which in most cases, is neglected due to lack of awareness. Surgical excision with conjunctival autograft continues to be the gold standard of treatment for the same.</p> Paraali Shah Shubhangi Nigwekar Aditya Arage Rucha Kacha Rohit Aphale Copyright (c) 2021 Paraali Shah, Shubhangi Nigwekar, Aditya Arage, Rucha Kacha, Rohit Aphale 2021-10-06 2021-10-06 8 5 403 408 10.26838/MEDRECH.2020.8.5.556 Study of clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of bone lesions- A two-year study <p><strong>Background: </strong>A pathological bone lesion can present in any form of inflammatory to neoplastic conditions and they pose a definite diagnostic challenge. The aim of the present research was to study the incidence, age of presentation, and site of bone lesions, overview the clinical, imaging, and pathologic findings, and also compare radiological and histological findings.&nbsp; <strong>Methods:</strong> This study was conducted in 30 cases of bone lesions, who presented to a tertiary care hospital from May 2010 to September 2012. Clinical examination was done initially, followed by radiological imaging (X-ray, CT &amp; MRI). Based on imaging, the decision of biopsy was taken for final diagnosis. Histopathological examination was done on Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides. <strong>Results:</strong> Out of 30 cases, 14(46.66%) cases were benign, 14(46.66%) were malignant tumors and 2(6.66%) were non-neoplastic lesions. Osteochondroma (35.71%) was the most common benign bone tumor and multiple myeloma (28.57%) was the commonest malignant tumor while non-neoplastic lesions were avascular necrosis of hip &amp; chronic osteomyelitis. The primary bone tumors occurred mostly in 0-50 years, while half cases of multiple myeloma and metastatic tumors were seen 1-2 decades higher. 85.71% of benign tumors occurred in males while malignant tumors showed equal sex incidence. All non-neoplastic cases occurred in males. The femur was most commonly involved long bone while the pelvis was the most commonly involved flat bone. Radiological diagnosis was consistent with histopathological diagnosis in 80% of cases. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Age, sex, and site are important clinical parameters. Radiology and imaging investigation is an essential step in the diagnosis, prior to histopathological study. Clinical, imaging and histopathology thus remains the key for diagnosing bone lesions; especially so in bone tumors.</p> Vivek Kharolkar Naveen Chawla Pratik Chide Megha Kinake Copyright (c) 2021 Dr Vivek Kharolkar, Dr Naveen Chawla, Dr Pratik Chide, Dr Megha Kinake 2021-10-10 2021-10-10 8 5 409 420 10.26838/MEDRECH.2020.8.5.558 Post recovery Covid-19 patients: Factor affecting oxygen saturation and complication in them. <p>Oxygen saturation is a measure of how much hemoglobin is currently bound to oxygen compared to how much remains unbound. Oral steroids rapidly reduce the inflammation and are associated with rapid rise in oxygen saturation. The post recovery complications vary from Relapsing fever to wakefulness to tiredness. Proning has been found effective in increasing the oxygen saturation of the patient. The objectives of this study is to determine the effect of steroids, antifungals, proning and breathing exercises on post recovery oxygen saturation in COVID- 19 patients and to find the common post recovery complaints/complications in the COVID-19 patients. It was a cross- sectional study. The study had 34 participants. All the participants had history of COVID-19 infection. 31 reported post recovery tiredness. 13 practiced proning in the recovery period while, 12 practiced breathing exercises. The oxygen saturation was compared with those who took oral steroids by Pearson Chi-Square test the P value was found to be 0.000 thus there is a significant difference between the oxygen saturation of those who received oral steroids and those who did not. There is a significant association between use of antifungal and oxygen saturation post recovery with Pearson Chi- square p value 0.003. The Pearson Chi-Square test gives a p value of 0.000 thus there is a significant association between post recovery oxygen saturation and proning. The Pearson Chi-Square test gives a P value of 0.003 thus there is a significant association between post recovery oxygen saturation and breathing exercises.</p> Prashant Solanke Shrey Dubey Aakanksha Nischal Patil Raman Rajesh Dhande Copyright (c) 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 8 5 421 427 10.26838/MEDRECH.2021.8.5.527 The influence of processing conditions on proximate, mineral and phytochemical properties of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) flour <p>Processing of agricultural produce is carried out to improve its nutritional value and consumer acceptability.&nbsp; Different processing operations are used to process cereals and legumes and these include fermentation, germination and roasting. These techniques are important in improving the nutritive values, palatability, digestibility and shelf life. Data on the influence of these processing conditions on nutrients and anti-nutrients of tiger-nut are scanty. The influence of these processing techniques on proximate composition, mineral and anti-nutritional contents of tiger nuts were determined using standard procedures. Fermentation germination and roasting caused significant (p≤0.05) increases in protein from 2.69% to 18.65%, sodium from 6 to 12 mg/100g, potassium from 402 to 517 mg/100g, calcium from 6 to 16 mg/100g and iron from 5 to 12 mg/100g and a significant (p≤0.05) decrease in ash contents. There were also significant decreases in tannin from 0.76 to 0.22 mg/g, phytate from 0.46 t0 0.15 mg/g, saponin from 2.04 to 1.18 mg/g and alkaloids from 1.93 to 1.29 mg/g in fermentation, 1.74mg/g in germination and 1.77 mg/g in roasting, but there occur marginal increases in alkaloids and saponin in freshly germinated and dry roasted samples. Increases or decreases were not observed in magnesium and zinc contents in any of the processing techniques.&nbsp;</p> Abiodun A Olapade Abdulkareem A Obomeghei Peter A Ebabhamiegbebho Odeleye Oluwafunmilola Copyright (c) 2021 Olapade Abiodun A, *Obomeghei Abdulkareem A, Ebabhamiegbebho, Peter A, Odeleye Oluwafunmilola 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 8 5 428 438 Application of fluorescent microscopy for improved detection of acid fast bacilli in sputum smear preparation <p><strong>Background: </strong>Tuberculosis remains a global health problem with an enormous burden of disease. Ziehl-Neelsen stain is the most commonly used method worldwide to detect tuberculous lymph node aspirates, however, Auramine – O Staining is being preferred owing to its high sensitivity, rapidity, and ease of screening. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of fluorescent microscopy using Auramine O stain with conventional microscopy using Ziehl- Neelsen stain as a screening method to detect clinically suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>A total of 100 clinically suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis referred to RNTCP laboratory from chest and TB OPD Medicine and Surgery and all other inpatient and out-patient departments were studied with detailed clinical history and sputum examination using Ziehl–Neelsen and Auramine O staining.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among 100 cases, 28% of cases were detected sputum smear-positive by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and 30% cases were detected by Auramine O stain using a fluorescence microscope. Maximum sputum smears positive (36.6%) cases were in the age group of 31-40 years with male predominance (75%). Auramine O stain showed higher grading in 4 cases in which one case was scanty on Ziehl-Neelsen smear showed positive 1+ by Auramine O and other 2 cases which were negative by Ziehl-Neelsen stain were showed 1+ result on Auramine O stain. One case which showed 2+ grading on Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed 3+ grading with Auramine O stain. Fluorescence microscopy using Auramine O showed better grading than the Ziehl-Neelsen stain.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Fluorescence microscopy is more superior in detecting sputum smear-positive cases over Ziehl-Neelsen stain.</p> Archana Maruti Panage Vivek D. Kharolkar Shreeram W. Chopade Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Archana Maruti Panage, Dr. Vivek D. Kharolkar, Dr. Shreeram W. Chopade 2021-10-21 2021-10-21 8 5 439 447