BROADENING THE HORIZONS OF DENTISTRY USING STEM CELLS
It is dentists' dream to achieve bone repair with predictability, but without donor site morbidity as well as reconstruction of injured or pathologically damaged complex dental structures, however, this will no longer be a dream as these are being made into a reality using stem cell science. Stem cell science is clearly an intriguing and promising area of science. Stem cells have been isolated from a variety of embryonic and adult tissues. Dental stem cells are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) brought new enthusiasm among the researchers because of their easy accessibility, high quality and they don't pose the same ethical concerns and controversy in comparison with embryonic stem cells. This review article provides brief insights about stem cell basics, the state of art in human dental stem cell research and its possible impact on future dentistry. Even though most of these modalities are still in infancy, it is evident that the 21 st century dentist is going to play a critical role in the field of medicine. The aim of this article is to bring awareness among the dentists about the huge potential associated with the use of stem cells in a clinical setting, as well as proper understanding of related problems.
2. Van Os R, Kamminga LM, de Haan G. Stem cell assays: Something old, something new, something borrowed. Stem Cells 2004;22:1181-90.
3. Kuhn NZ, Tuan RS. Regulation of stemness and stem cell niche of mesenchymal stem cells: Implications in tumorigenesis and metastasis. J Cell Physiol 2010;222:268-77.
4. Owen M, Friedenstein AJ. Stromal stem cells: marrow-derived osteogenic precursors. Ciba Found Symp 1988;136:42-60.
5. Bianco P, Riminucci M, Gronthos S, Robey PG. Bone marrow stromal stem cells: Nature, biology, and potential applications. Stem Cells 2001;19:180-92.
6. Kuznetsov SA, Krebsbach PH, Satomura K, Kerr J, Riminucci M, Benayahu D, et al. Single-colony derived strains of human marrow stromal fibroblasts form
bone after transplantation in vivo. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12:1335-47.
7. Bianco P, Robey PG. Skeletal stem cells. In: Lanza RP, editor. Handbook of adult and fetal stem cells. San Diego: Academic Press; 2004. p. 415-24.
8. Barry FP, Murphy JM. Mesenchymal stem cells: Clinical applications and biological characterization. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2004;36:568-84.
9. Zipori D. Mesenchymal stem cells: Harnessing cell plasticity to tissue and organ repair. Blood Cells Mol Dis 2004;33:211-5.
10. Huang GT, Gronthos S, Shi S. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental tissues vs. those from other sources; their biology and role in regenerative medicine. J Dent Res 2009;88:792-806.
11. Liu L, ling J, Wei X, Wu L, Xiao Y. Stem cell regulatory gene expression in human adult dental pulp and periodontal ligament cells undergoing odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation. J Endod 2009;35:1368-76.
12. Pryzborski SA. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells after transplantation in immune-deficient mice. Stem Cells 2005;23:1242-50.
13. Shi S, Bartold PM, Miura M, Seo BM, Robey PG, Gronthos S. The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells to regenerate and repair dental structures. OrthodCraniofac Res 2005;8:191-9.
14. Gronthos S, Mankani M, Brahim J, Robey PG, Shi S. Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro and in vivo. ProcNatlAcadSci USA 2000;97:13625-30.
15. Kraft DC, Bindslev DA, Melsen B, Abdallah BM, Kassem M, Klein-Nulend J. Mechanosensitivity of dental pulp stem cells is related to their osteogenic maturity. Eur J Oral Sci 2010;118:29-38.
16. Seo BM, Miura M, Gronthos S, Bartold PM, Batouli S, Brahim J, et al. Investigation of multipotent postnatal stem cells from human periodontal ligament. Lancet 2004;364:149-55.
17. Miura M, Gronthos S, Zhao M, Lu B, Fisher LW, Robey PG, et al., SHED: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth. ProcNatlAcadSci USA 2003;100:5807-12.
18. Sonoyama W, Liu y, Fang D, Yamaza T, Seo BM, Zhang C, et al. Mesenchymal stem cell-medicated functional tooth regeneration in swine. PloS One 2006;1:1-8.
19. Abe S, Yamaguchi S, Watanabe A, Hamada K, Amagasa T. Hard tissue regeneration capacity of apical pulp derived cells (APDCs) from the human tooth with immature apex. BiochemBiophys Res Commun 2008;371:90-3.
20. Kemoun P, Laurencin-Dalicieux S, Rue J, Farges JC, Gennero I, Conte-Auriol F, et al., Human dental follicle cells acquire cementoblast features under stimulation by BMP-2/-7and enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) in vitro. Cell Tissue Res 2007;329:283-94,
21. Handa K, Saito M, Yamauchi M, Kiyono T, Sato S, Teranaka T, et al. Gementum matrix formation in viov by cultured dental follicle cells. Bone 2002;31:606-11.
22. Morsczeck C, Gotz W, Schierholz J, Zeilhofer F, Kühn U, Möhl C, et al. Isolation of precursor cells (PCs) from human dental follicle of wisdom teeth. Matrix Biol 2005;24:155-65.
23. Kim SH, Kim KH, Seo BM, Koo KT, Kim TI, Seol YJ, et al. Alveiolar bone regeneration by transplantation of periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow stem cells in a canine periimplant defect model: A pilot study. J Periodontal
24. Zheng Y, Liu Y, Zhang CM, Zhang HY, Li WH, Shi S, et al. Stem cells from deciduous tooth repair mandibular defect in swine. J Dent Res 2009;88:249-54.
25. Ad'Aquino R, De Rosa A, Lanza V, Tirino V, Laino L, Graziano A, et al. Human mandible bone defect repair by the grafting of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells and collagen sponge complexes. Eur Cell Mater 2009;18:75-83.
26. Feng F, Akiyama K, Liu Y, Yamaza T, Wang TM, Chen JH, et al. Utility of PDL progenitors for in vivo tissue regeneration: A report of 3 cases. Oral Dis 2010;16:20-8.
27. Nakashima M, Iohara K, Sugiyama M. Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and the neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2009:20:435-40.
28. Nakashima M, Akamine A. The application of tissue engineering to the regeneration of pulp and dentin in endodontics. J Endod 2005;31:711-8.
29. Reddi AH. The role of morphogenetic proteins in skeletal tissue engineering and regeneration. Nat Biotechnol 1998;16:247-52.
30. Nakashima M, Reddi AH. The application of bone morphogenetic proteins to dental tissue engineering. Nat Biotechnol2003;21:1025-32.