• Dr. Vipin Kaul Post graduate student (Periodontics & Oral implantology), Shree Bankey Bihari Dental College & Research centre, Delhi-Hapur road, Masuri, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh
  • Dr. Nisha Kaul Professor of Anatomy, Santosh Medical College, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Dr. Poonam Dutt Professor & HOD (Periodontics & Oral Implantology), Shree Bankey Bihari Dental College & Research Centre, Delhi-Hapur Road, Masuri, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh
  • Sangeeta Chauhan Research Associate, Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi
Keywords: Frontal Sinus, Aplasia/Hypoplasia, Development, Prevalence, Intraoperative and Post-Operative Complications


Introduction: The frontal air sinuses are a pair of air containing hollow spaces situated within the frontal bone measuring 28 mm (L), 24mm (W), 20mm (AP) on an average as quoted by Grey’s anatomy. The size and anatomic relations of the sinus depend upon the extent of pneumatization of the frontal bone. A considerable reduction or total absence of pneumatization results in hypoplasia/ aplasia of the frontal sinus.

Aim: To investigate the prevalence of aplasia/ hypoplasia of the frontal sinus in a population of western UP because the frontal sinus is very vulnerable during surgical procedures of the skull due to its close relationship with orbit and anterior skull base.

Material and Methods: The study was carried on randomly selected PA cephalograms of 150 adult humans, attending the radiology dept. of SMH GZB some private hospitals situated in Ghaziabad. The frontal sinuses on both sides were studied for their presence or absence in the xray.

Results: 44 out of 150 cases showed aplasia/ hypoplasia of frontal sinus on x-ray; with cases of only aplasia in 31.81% cases; only hypoplasia in 50% cases and cases of one side aplasia with other sided hypoplasia in 18.18% of cases.

Discussion: The entity “APLASIA OF FRONTAL PARANASAL AIR SINUS” has been found as early as 1943. It is found to be in a very high percentage in all Eskimos.Genetic factor and cold climate are said to be closely associated with this conditions besides primary congenital anomalies and secondary pathological conditions.Variations in the anatomy of frontal sinuses are critical 1. for neurosurgeons while performing pterional or supraorbital craniotomy to avoid risks of intraoperative &postoperative complications and improve success of post-operative management strategies 2. For morphological and forensic investigations.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Size and Position of Frontal Air Sinuses CARTA
2. Singh A, Arlen D Meyers; Paranasal Sinus Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy, Microscopic ... MEDSCAPE,
5-overview Updated: May 26, 2016 3. Porter GT. Paranasal Sinuses: Anatomy and Function -
4. Pozve NJ, Sheikhi M, Khorasgani MA, and PozveSJ Aplasia and hypoplasia of the maxillary sinus: A case series.Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2014 SepOct; 11(5): 615–617.
5. Lundberg J.O.N. , Szallas TFI, Weitzberg E, RinderJ et al High nitric oxide production in human paranasal sinuses, Nature Medicine (1995)1, 370- 373 .
6. Arnal JF, Flores P, Rami J, Espin MM, Bremont F, Aguilla MP et al . Nasal nitric oxide concentration in paranasal sinus inflammatory diseases. Eur Respir J 1999; 13: 307-312
7. Pondé, J. M.; andrade, R. N.; Via, J. M.; Metzger, P. & Teles, A. C. Anatomical variations of the frontal sinus. Int. J.morphol., 26(4):803-808, 2008.
8. Verma P, Verma KG, Khosa R, Kumar S et al. Combined Use of Frontal Sinus and Nasal Septum Patterns as an Aid in Forensics: A Digital Radiographic StudyN Am J Med Sci. 2015 Feb; 7(2): 47–52.
9. Soman B A, Sujatha GP, Ashok Lingappa A Morphometric evaluation of the frontal sinus in relation to age and gender in subjects residing in Davangere, Karnataka.J Forensic Dent Sci. 2016 Jan-Apr; 8(1): 57.
10. Belaldavar C, KotrashettiVS, . Hallikerimath SR, and Kale AD Assessment of frontal sinus dimensions to determine sexual dimorphism among Indian adults. J Forensic Dent Sci. 2014 Jan-Apr; 6(1): 25–30.
11. Asherson N. London: Lewis and Co; 1965. Identification by frontal sinus prints. A forensic medical pilot Survey.
12. Ruiz CR and Wafae anatomyradiological and morphometrical study of the frontal sinus in humans .braz. J. Morphol. Sci. (2004) 21(1), 53-56
13. Çakur B, Sumbullu MA, Durna NB. Aplasia and Agenesis of the Frontal Sinus in Turkish Individuals: A Retrospective Study Using Dental Volumetric Tomography. Int J Med Sci. 2011; 8(3): 278–282 Published online 2011 Apr 8.
14. David MP, Saxena R. Use of the frontal sinus and nasal septum patterns as an aid in personal identification: A digital radiographic pilot study. J Forensic Dent Sci. 2010 Jul-Dec; 2(2):77-80.
15.Choudhary S , Pasricha N 1, Sehgal G , Siddiqui MS1 et al APLASIA OF FRONTAL SINUS: CT STUDY ,Int J Anat Res 2015, Vol 3(4):1620-23. ISSN 2321- 4287.
16.NehaPatil N, Karjodkar FR, Sontakke S, Sansare K, Salvi R. Uniqueness of radiographic patterns of the frontal sinus for personal identification. Imaging Sci Dent. 2012 Dec; 42(4): 213–217.
17. Natsis K1, Karabatakis V, Tsikaras P, Chatzibalis T, Stangos A, Stangos N. Frontal sinus anatomical variations with potential consequences for the orbit. Study on cadavers Morphologie. 2004 Apr; 88(280):35-8.
18. Paolo B, Fabio R, Cesare G, MassimilianoG, Giancarlo P Bilateral Hypoplasia of the Frontal Sinuses, Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: July 2013 - Volume 24 - Issue 4 - p 1502– 1503
19. What is a hypo plastic frontal sinus? | Reference. Com › Science › Human Anatomy.
20. Gotlib T, Kuźmińska M, HeldZiółkowska M, Osuch-Wójcikiewicz E, Niemczyk K Hidden unilateral aplasia of the frontal sinus: a radio-anatomic study. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2015 May; 5(5):441-4
21. Aydinlioglu A, Kavakli A, Erdem S. Absence of Frontal Sinus in Turkish individuals. Yonsei Med J.2003; 44(2):215–8.
22. Aydinlioglu A, Kavakli A, Erdem S. Absence of frontal sinus in Turkish individuals. Yoseni Medical Journal,year 2003, Vol. 44, no. 2, pp.215-218.
23. Koertvelyessy T. Relationship between the frontal sinus and climatic conditions: a skeletal approach to cold adaptation. Am J PhysAnthropol. 1972;34:161–72.
24. Hanson CL, Owsley DW. Frontal sinus size in Eskimo population. Am J PhysAnthropol. 1980; 53:251
25. WabbaMFrontal sinus | Radiology Reference Article |
26 Scuderi AJ, Harnsberger HR and Boyer RS. Pneumatization of the paranasal sinuses: normal features of importance to the accurate interpretation of CT scans
and MR images American Journal of Roentgenology. May 1993, VOLUME 160 NUMBER 5, P 1101-1104.
27. Hazem Abu ZeidYouset. , Paranasal Sinuses: Radiological Anatomy.CT anatomy of the paranasal sinuses. Published in: health and medicine on Oct 13, 2014
28. Thiagarajan B, Narashiman NS Hypoplasia of all paranasal sinuses A case series and Literature review. Otorhinology Online Journal volume 2 Issue, 2, 2012 ISSN2250- 0359.
29. Frontal Sinus Aplasia symptoms, treatments & patient forums 2-frontal-sinus-aplasia
30. Selarka B, Mehta R, Ludhwani S, Mansuri K et al. Conventional frontal sinus imaging – a tool in gender determination. Bhavnagar University’s journal of dentistry (bujod) maharaja Krishna Kumarsinhji Bhavnagar University Vol. 5 Issue-1 January 2015
31. Caldwell's view – Wikipedia's_view
32.Schuller A. Note on the identification of skulls by X-ray pictures of the frontal sinuses. Med J Aust.1943; 1:554–556.
33. Krogman WM. The human skeleton in forensic medicine 2nd ed. Vol. 20. Springfield III: Thomas; 1962.
34. Koertvelyessy T. Relationships between the frontal sinus and climatic conditions: A skeletal approach to cold adaptation. Am J PhysAnthropol. 1972; 337:161–7.
35. Nowak R, Mehls G. Die apllasien der sinus maxillaries und frontalesunterbesendererBerucksichtigung der pneumatization beispalttragern. AnatAnz 1977; 142:441-50.
36. Hanson CL, Owsley DW. Frontal sinus size in Eskimo population. Am J PhysAnthropol 1980; 53:25.
37. Ikeda J. Inter-population variations of the frontal sinus measurements: Comparison between the Jomon and recent Japanese population. J AnthropSoc Nippon Suppl. 1980; 90:91–104.
38. Yoshino M, Miyasaka S, Sato H, Seta S. Classification system of frontal sinus patterns by radiography. Its application to identification of unknown skeletal remains. Forensic SciInt1987; 34:289-99.
39. Spaeth J, Krugelstein U, Schlondorf G. The paranasal sinuses in CT-imaging: development from birth to age 25. Int J PediatrOtorhinolaryngol. 1997; 39:25–40.
40. Tang JP, Hu DY, Jiang FH, Yu XJ. Assessing forensic applications of the frontal sinus in a Chinese Han population. Forensic Sci Int. 2009; 183:104e1–3.
41. Rad MP, Dawoodi Y, Bakhshaee M, Nabavi SA The prevalence of frontal sinus aplasia in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. Iranian journal of otorhinology. Article 5, Volume 21, Issue 55, April 2009, Page 29-32.
42.Sani S A D, BavandiR,Esmaili M Frontal Sinus Agenesis Using Computed Tomography. The Journal of craniofacial surgery · November 2011, 22(6):e48-51.
43. Korkmaz H, Korkmaz, M Total aplasia of the paranasal sinuses. Allergy & Rhinology. 2013 Summer; 4(2): e105–e109
44. Verma S, MahimaV G, Patil K Radio morphometric analysis of frontal sinus for sex determination. J Forensic Dent Sciv ,Sep-Dec 2014. 6(3): 177–182.
45. Ozgursoy OB, Comert A, Yorulmaz I, Tekdemir I, ElhanA, Kucuk B. Hidden unilateral agenesis of the frontal sinus: human cadaver study of a potential surgical pitfall. Am J Otolaryngol 2010; 31:231-4.
46 Neha, Mohan V, Kumar J S, Kumar SC Morphometric Evaluation Of Frontal Sinus In Relation To Gender- A Forensic Study. University J Dent Scie 2015;1(2): 7-11.
47. Frontal sinusParanasal sinuses - Wikipedia
48. Pifferi M, Bush a, Caramella D, DiCicco M et al Agenesis of paranasal sinuses and nasal nitric oxide in primary ciliary dyskinesia. European Respiratory Journal 2011 37: 566-571.
How to Cite
Dr. Vipin Kaul, Dr. Nisha Kaul, Dr. Poonam Dutt, Sangeeta Chauhan. INCIDENCE OF CONGENITAL APLASIA AND HYPOPLASIA OF FRONTAL PARANASAL AIR SINUS AMONGEST THE POPULATION OF WESTERN UP REGION. Med. res. chronicles [Internet]. 1 [cited 2024Jul.23];4(01):77-0. Available from:
Original Research Article