POTENCY EVALUATION OF A FORMULATED NOVEL DISINFECTANT ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINES (ATMs) IN BAYELSA STATE, NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA
An increasing number of people has used the Automated Teller Machine (ATMs) by the year, but less was known about their bacteria colonization status. Do these machines harbor pathogenic bacteria? This work was carried out between March and November 2015 to isolate the pathogenic bacteria associated with ATMs and to evaluate the potency of the formulated novel (Darol) and commonly sold disinfectants (Izal, Domitol) on these bacteria isolates. Samples were collected from thirty-two (32) different Automated Teller Machines located in different banks, within Yenagoa metropolis, with wet sterile swabs and cultured, isolated and identified in the laboratory using selective media and microbiological standard procedures respectively. The bacteria suspension of pure isolates were standardized with 0.5 Mc Farland Turbidity Standard and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the disinfectants at different concentrations (2% 4% 6% 8% 10% and 12%) using cup plate method. Seventy-nine (79) bacteria strains which include Staphylococcus aureus, 37(46%); Klebsiella sp., 19 (24%); Pseudomonas 6 (7.5%) and Bacillus 6 (7.5%) were isolated and identified. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the potency of the test disinfectants (p<0.05) at different concentrations except at 2% between Darol and others for Klebsiella and Pseudomonas species. In conclusion, findings have shown that the potency of the test disinfectants increases with increase in concentrations and Darol mean value 75.5 (43.1%) was most potent, followed by Damitol mean value 54.1 (31%) and the least was Izal mean value 45.4 (26%).
2. Anastasiades, P. Pratt, T. L. Rousseau, L. H., Steinberg, W. H., and Joubert. 2009. Staphylococcus aureus on Computer mice and keyboards in intensive care units of the Universitas Academic Hospital, Bloemfontein and ICU staff’s knowledge of its hazards and cleaning practices. South Afr. J. Epidemiol. Infect. Vol 24: pages 22- 26
3. Anonymous Global ATM clock. Automatic Teller Machine industry association (ATMIA), 2011a. Accessed online 25 May 2011. (http://www.atmia.commigglobalatmclock)
4. Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) The History of computing project. Thocp. Net., 2012; 17(4): 20. 5.
5. Barron, G. I and Feltham, R. K. A. 1999. Cowan and Steel’s Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria (3rd Edn) Cambrige University Press UK page 331
6. Batiz-Lazo, B. and Reid, R.J.K. (2008). Evidence from the patient record on the development of cash dispensing technology.Cash Machine (1961). The machine accepts cash deposits. The York Times, 12 April 1961; 3-12.
7. Dogan, M., Feyzioglu, M. Ozdemir, M. and Baysal B. 2008. Investigation of microbial colonization of computer keyboards used inside and outside hospital environments. Mikrobiyol. Bul. 42 (2): pages 331 – 336
8. Famurewa, O. and David O. M. 2009. Cell phone: A medium of transmission of bacterial pathogens. World Rural Observation Vol. 1: pages 69 – 72
9. Fraser, M. A. and Girling. 2009. Bacterial carriage of computer keyboards in veterinary practices in Scotland. Vet. Rec., Vol. 165: pages 26 – 27
10. French, G. L., Otter, J. A, Shannon, K. P, Adama, N. M. T. and Watling, D. 2004. Tackling contamination of the hospital environment by MethicilinResistant taphylococcus aureus (MRSA): A comparison between conventional terminal cleaning and hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination J. Hosp. Infect., 57: 31-37
11. Geo, F. B., Janet S. B. and Stephen A. M. 2001. Medical Microbiology pages 8 – 40 McGraw Hill Press
12. Hardy, K. J., Oppenhelm, B. A. Gossain, S. Gao. F. and Hawkey P. M. 2006. A study of the relationship between environmental contamination with Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and patients’ acquisition of MRSA. Infect Control Hosp. Epidemiol., Vol. 27: 127 -132
13. Hone, K. S., Graham, R. Maguire, M. C. Baber, C. Johnson, G. I. 2008. Speech technology for automatic teller machines: an investigation of user attitude and performance. Ergonomics. Vol 1. No7 pages 962 -981
14. Hood, S. K. and Zottola, E. A. 1997. Adherence to stainless steel by foodborne microorganisms during growth in model food systems. Int. J. Food Microbiol., Vol.37: pages 145 –153
15. Kluytmans J., Van-Belkum A., Verbrugh, H., Van-Belkum, V., and Verbrugh, V. 1997. “Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology underlying the mechanisms and associated risk”
16. Marbel, J.C. Subathra, M., Shyamala,M., Padma, S., and Rekha, R. 2014. Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) – A “Pathogen City” – A surveillance report from locations in and around Madurai city, Tamil Nadu, India. IJPHS., Vol. 3: 51–56. 25.
17. Mbajiuka, C., Onuoha, S., and Ugah, U. 2014. Microorganisms associated with the use of commercial mobile phones in Umudike, Ikwuano L.G.A. of Abia
State, Nigeria. New York Science Journal., 2014; 7(7): 74-77
18. Mehmet, S. T., Yusuf, Y., Baris, O., Yucel, D. and Nilay, G. 2013. Bacteria found on Banks‟ automated teller machines (ATMs) Afr. Jour. Microbial. Res., 2013; 7: 1619-1621. 27.
19. Ogston A. 1984. “On Abscesses” Classics in infectious Diseases”. Rev. infect Dis 6 (1): pages 122-128
20. Sharma, M. and Anand S. K. 2002. Biofilm evaluation as an essential component of HACCP for food/ dairy processing industry – a case study in food control, Vol. 13: pages 469 - 477