• Okari Tamunoiyowuna Grace Department of Paediatrics, Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
  • West Boma Awoala Department of Paediatrics, Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Keywords: Childhood morbidity, Vaccination, Nutritional status, Preschool children, Niger Delta


Background: Malnutrition is a major contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Lack of vaccination and recurrent childhood diseases are important contributors to the burden of malnutrition in these countries.

Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in Okrika town, the headquarters of Okrika Local Government Area in Rivers State, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling method was used to recruit 410 under-fives. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain demographic and vaccination data, history of diarrhoea, fever and respiratory tract infection.

Results: Of 410 under-fives studied, 217 (52.9%) were males. Forty three (10.5%) were underweight, 219 (53.4%) fully vaccinated, 42 (10.2%) unvaccinated while 56 (13.6%) and 68 (16.5%) had fever and symptoms of respiratory tract infection (RTI) respectively. The prevalence of underweight malnutrition was significantly higher among unvaccinated children (26.2%), among those with RTI (23.5%), fever (21.4%) and diarrhoea (30.8%). The risk of underweight malnutrition was 3.6 times and 2.8 times higher in those with RTI and fever respectively.

Conclusion: Complete vaccination, prevention and prompt treatment of childhood illnesses among under-fives will improve their nutritional status.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Pyrianka R, Vivin N, Jini MP, Saju CR. An assessment of the nutritional status of underfive children in a rural area of Thrissur district, Kerala, India. Int J Comm
Med Pub Health 2016; 3: 3479-86.
2. National Population Commission, Nigeria and ICF Macro. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Abuja: National Population Commission and ICF Macro;
3. Morris SS, Cogill B, Uauy R. Effective international action against undernutrition: why it has proven so difficult and what can be done to accelerate progress. Lancet 2008; 371: 608-621.
4. United Nations Children’s Fund. Tracking Progress on Child and Maternal Nutrition. A survival and development priority. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund; 2009.
5. United Nations Children`s Fund. Improving child nutrition. The achievable imperative for global progress. New York: UNICEF; 2013.
6. Ahmed MM, Hokororo A, Kidenya BR, Kabyemera R, Kamugisha E. Prevalence of undernutrition among children admitted to Bugandu Medical Centre in wanza,
Tanzania. BMC Nutrition 2016; 2:49. Doi10.10.1186/s40795-016-0090-6.
7. Prendergast AJ. Malnutrition and vaccination in developing countries. Phil Trans R Soc B 2015; 370: 20140141.
8. Samiak L, Emeto TI. Vaccination and nutritional status of children in Karawari, East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea. PLos ONE 2015; 12 (11):e0187796
9. Abedi AL, Srivastavs JP. Effect of vaccination on the nutritional status of preschool children in rural and urban Locknow. J Acad Indus Res 2012; 4: 173-75.
10. Anderson DR, Sweeney DJ, Williams TA. Sampling and sampling distribution; determining the size of sample. In: Introduction to statistics, concepts and
applications. 2nd ed. New York: West Publishing Company, 1991; 215-265.
11. National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria. Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 Main Report. Abuja: National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria; 2011.
12. Olusanya O, Okpere E, Ezimokhai M. The importance of socioeconomic class in voluntary fertility control in a developing country. W Afr J Med 1985; 4:205-12.
13. Ajao KO, Ojofeitimi EO, Adebayo AA, Fatusi AO, Afolabi OT. Influence of family size, household food security status andOkari T. G. and West B. A., Med. Res. Chronicles., 6(3), 117-124 2019 child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile Ife. Afr J Reprod Health 2010; 14: 123-32.
14. Akorede QJ, Abiola OM. Assessment of nutritional status of under-five children in Akure South Local Government, Ondo State. Int J Res Rev Appl Sci 2013; 14:
15. Anderson AK, Bignell W, Winful S, Soyiri I, Steiner-Asiedu M. Risk factors for malnutrition among children 5 years and younger in the Akuapim North District in
the Eastern Region of Ghana. Curr Res J Biol Sci 2010; 2: 183-88.
16. Bhavsar S, Mahajan H, Kulkarni R. Assessment of the nutritional status and immunization coverage of Anganwadi children in Rafiq Nagar, Mumbai. Public
Health Res 2012; 2(6): 229-234.
17. Chakraborty A, Dasgupta U, Mondal K, Das I, Sengupta D, Mundle M. Poor maternal education and incomplete immunisation status are key predictors in development of undernutrition- a descriptive study among under five children attending a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata, West Bengal. Indian J Prev Soc Med 2014; 45: 43-47.
18. Oyefara JL. Mothers characteristics and immunisation status of under-five children in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria. SAGE open 2014;1-10.
DOI: 10.1177/2158244014545474.
19. Sondai A, Muffuh PM, Sesay MB, Brima A. Factors influencing malnutrition in under-five children in Yemoh Town community; Bo city, Southern Sierra Leone. Int J Med Health Res 2017; 3(4): 76-84.
20. Mohammed K, Reema K, Uday M, Manar MK. The effect of immunization on nutritional status of pre-school children from below poverty line families in
Lucknow District, North India. Unique J Med Dental Sci 2015; 3 (2): 1-4.
21. Ophori EA, Tula MY, Azih AV, Okojie R, Ikpo PE. Current Trends of Immunization in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges. Trop Med Health 2014; 42 (2): 67–75.
22. Antai D. Rural-urban inequities in childhood immunisation in Nigeria: The role of community contexts. Afr J Pry Health Care Fam Med. 2011; 3(1): doi:10.4102/phcfm.v3i1.238.
23. Zere E, McIntyre D. Inequities in underfive child malnutrition in South Africa. Int J Equity Health 2003; 2:7.
24. Dinesh K, Goel NK, Mittal PC, Misra P. Influence of infant feeding practices on nutritional status of under-five children. Indian J Pediatr 2006; 73: 417-421.
25. Teshome B, Kogi-Makau W, Getahun Z, Zaye G. Magnitude and determinants of stunting in children under-five years of age in food surplus region of Ethiopia: The case of West Gojam Zone. Ethiop. J Health Dev 2009; 23: 98-106.
26. Asfaw M, Wondaferash M, Tahha M, Dube L. Prevalence of undernutrition and associated factors among children aged six to fifty months in Bule Hora district, South Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 2015; 15: 41- . DOI 10.1186/s12889-015-1370-9.
27. Olack B, Burk B, Cosmos L, Bamrah S, Dooling K, Feikin DR et al. Nutritional status of under-five children living in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. J Health Popul Nutr 2011; 29: 357- 363.
28. Moore SR, Lima AA, Conway MR, Schurling JB, Soares AM, Guerrant RL. Early childhood diarrhoea and helminthiasis associated with linear growth faltering. Int J Epidemol 2001; 30: 145- 164.
29. Sarkar R, Prabhu S, Bhuvaneshwari T, Kulandaipalayam CS, Sitara SRA, Jayaprakash M et al. Burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in a semi-urban
slum in Southern India. BMC Public Health 2013; 13:1-14.
30. Ebenebe J, Ulasi TO. Nutrition and nutritional assessment in childhood. In: Azubuike JC, Nkanginieme KEO (eds). Paediatrics and Child Health in a Tropical
Region. 2nd ed. Owerri: Nigeria African Educational Services, 2007; 240-249.
How to Cite
Okari Tamunoiyowuna Grace, West Boma Awoala. THE EFFECT OF VACCINATION AND CHILDHOOD MORBIDITY ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA. Med. res. chronicles [Internet]. 2019Jun.30 [cited 2022Jan.18];6(3):117-24. Available from:
Original Research Article