Factors associated with low back pain in adult: a study in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh
Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a very common health problem in humans that may cause disability and can affect work performance and well-being. It can be acute, subacute, or chronic in condition. Although several risk factors of LBP have already been identified like occupational posture, age, depressive moods, body height, or obesity we have not enough research-based data regarding this issue.
Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with low back pain in adults.
Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Shaheed Ziaur Rahman Medical College Hospital, Bogura, Bangladesh during the period from July 2019 to December 2020. In total 57 confirmed LBP patients were enrolled as the case group patients and 30 healthy people were included as the control group participants in this study. All the clinical data regarding LBP were collected by using a predesigned questioner. Data were processed analyzed and disseminated by MS Office and SPSS programs as per need.
Results: In analyzing the risk factors of low back pain among the participants we observed, 47% of case group participants were used to remain in a sitting position for 0-1 hours per day whereas it was found among 67% in the control group. Moreover, in the case group, 14% of participants used to remain in a sitting position for more than 6 hours per day which was only 7% in the control group. Besides age (p=0.004) among several possible risk factors, in this study, we found a significant correlation of low back pain in the duration of sitting position between the case and control groups, where the p-value was 0.006.
Conclusion: Continuation of a long time sitting position is a harmful thing for the human musculoskeletal system. Now a day the lifestyle factors should be assessed with more attention for detecting the basic etiology of low back pain.
Grotle, Margreth, et al. "Clinical course and prognostic factors in acute low back pain: patients consulting primary care for the first time." Spine 30.8 (2005): 976-982.
Moffett JK, Richardson G, Sheldon T, Maynard A. Back pain: its management and cost to society. Discussion Paper 129. York, UK: Centre for Health Economics, University of York, 1995.
Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V. Diagnosis and treatment of LBP: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society. Ann Intern Med 2007;147:478.
Howard FM. Chronic Pelvic Pain. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 101:594-611.
Sterud T, Tynes T. Work-related psychosocial and me- chanical risk factors for low back pain: a 3-year follow-up study of the general working population in Norway. Oc- cup Environ Med 2013; 70: 296-302.
Mirtz, Timothy A., and Leon Greene. "Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question." Chiropractic & osteopathy 13.1 (2005): 1-6.
Wright D, Barrow S, Fisher AD, Horsley SD, Jayson MI. Influence of physical, psychological and behavioural factors on consultation for back pain. Br J Rheu- matol1995;34:156-61.
Dario, Amabile B., et al. "Are obesity and body fat distribution associated with low back pain in women? A population-based study of 1128 Spanish twins." European Spine Journal 25.4 (2016): 1188-1195.
Louw QA, Morris LD, Grimmer-Somers K. The prevalence of low back pain in Africa: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2007; 8: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-8-1 PMID: 17204151.
Sharma S, Traeger AC, Mishra SR, Sharma S, Maher CG. Delivering the right care to people with low back pain in low- and middle-income countries: the case of Nepal. J Glob Health. 2019; 9(1). https://doi. org/10.7189/jogh.09.010304 PMID: 30774940.
Hoy D, Brooks P, Blyth F, Buchbinder R. The epidemiology of low back pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheu- matol. 2010; 24: 769–781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2010.10.002 PMID: 21665125.
Lambeek LC, Bosmans JE, Van Royen BJ, Van Tulder MW, Van Mechelen W, Anema JR. Effect of integrated care for sick listed patients with chronic low back pain: economic evaluation alongside a ran- domised controlled trial. Bmj. 2010; 341: c6414. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c6414 PMID: 21118874.
Thelin A, Holmberg S, Thelin N. Functioning in neck and low back pain from a 12-year perspective: a prospective population-based study. J Rehabil Med. 2008; 40: 555–561. https://doi.org/10.2340/ 16501977-0205 PMID: 18758673.
Kwon MA, Shim WS, Kim MH, Gwak MS, Hahm TS, Kim AS, Kim CS, Chai YLL, Park JH, Cho HS and Kim TH 2006 A correlation between low back pain and associated factors: a study involving 722 patients who had undergone general physical examination, Journal of Korean Medicine, 21 (6); 1086-1091.
Jeffries LJ, Milanese SF and Grimmer-Somers KA 2007 Epidemiology of adolescent spinal pain: a systematic overview of the research literature, Spine, 32 (23): 2630-2637.
Hellerstein JK, Neumark D and Troske KR 1996 Wages, productivity and worker characteristics: evidence from plant level production function and wage equations, National Bureau of Economic Research working paper series, no 5626.
Crook MA, HallyPV and Pantelli JVI 2001The importance of the refeeding syndrome, Nutrition, 17; 632-637.
Burdorf A and Sorock F 1997 Positive and negative evidence of risk factors for back disorders, Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health, 23; 243-256.
Alcouffe J, Manlillier P, Brehier M, Fabin C and Faupin F 1999 Analysis by sex of low back pain among workers from small companies in the Paris area: severity and occupational consequences, Occupational Environmental Medicine, 56; 696- 701.
Radziminska, Agnieszka, et al. "The stabilizing system of the spine." Journal of Education, Health and Sport 7.11 (2017): 67-76.
Winkel J 1986 On the significance of physical activity in sedentary work. In: Khave B, Wickback PG, eds. Work with display units 86. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers BV, 220-236.
Duthey B. Background Paper 6.24 Lower Back Pain. Geneva: World Health Organization.2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2013.03.015 PMID: 23870413.