Study of renal profile in children with congenital heart disease in western rural Maharashtra.
Introduction: The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) is 8-10 per 1000 in India and worldwide and due to recent advancements in diagnostic modalities, early diagnosis and management are possible leading to an increase in long-term survival. Renal involvement is one of the known complications of CHD, especially in cyanotic CHD.
Materials & method: It was a prospective longitudinal study conducted at a tertiary care hospital, including 112 cases ranging from 1 month to 12 years of age with ECHO-proven CHD were studied for the renal profile. Investigations included urea, serum creatinine, serum electrolytes (Na, K, Ca), along with the Urine analysis for protein creatinine ratio. USG abdomen study for kidney size, bladder wall thickness, post-void residue, and pelvi-calceal dilatation was done.
Results: 83.9% of CHD were acyanotic and 16.1% were cyanotic CHD. The most common CHD was VSD (39.3%). Male predominance was noted with Male to Female ratio of 1.24:1.
The most common presenting symptom of CHD in our study was poor weight gain (71.4%). Anemia was found in 42 out of the total CHD cases (37.5%). Serum creatinine was raised in 5 patients (4.5%) of CHD. Incidence of elevated creatinine was more common in cyanotic CHD (16.7%) than cyanotic CHD (2.1%) Blood Urea was found to be abnormal in 9.8% of CHD.
Conclusion: Children with CHD are prone to develop renal problems and therefore need monitoring of renal parameters. Serum creatinine levels are most deranged and hence should be checked serially as it is one of the easily available laboratory parameters.
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