Assessment of temporomandibular disorder using Fonseca questionnaire and its classification based on DC/TMD criteria in tertiary hospital in Nepal.
Background and objective: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is an orofacial disorder, associated with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain, masticatory muscles fatigueness, restricted mouth opening and clicking. The Fonseca anamnestic index (FAI) is questionnaire for evaluating severity and characteristics of TMD. The Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD) is used for diagnosis of TMD. The study assessed the severity, clinical characteristic and patterns of TMDs in Eastern Nepal population.
Methods: A cross sectional study was done in Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology using census sampling. Eighty patients having TMD was interviewed using Fonseca's questionnaire, on pain TMJ pain, head, chewing, parafunctional habits etc. The clinical examination was done using DC/TMD examination form. The TMD was classified as pain disorder and TMJ disorder of right and left side. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11.5.
Results: FAI revealed TMD to be higher in female than male with odds ratio of 1.74. The mean age of the patient was 31.03 (±13.31). The duration from onset to diagnosis was 5.72 (±9.54) months. The Fonseca’s questionnaire showed 51.3% had moderate TMD followed by mild and severe. DCTMD criteria location of pain was most commonly in the TMJ region 47(58.8%) of cases followed by 7.5% in temporalis, masseter and other muscle and 1 (1.3%) had pain in sternocleidomastoid.
Conclusions: The TMDs showed moderate severity with Anamnestic Index. Myalgia was the most common pain disorder and disc displacement with reduction in right and left TMJ disorder.
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